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In Our running world, there are lots of problem issuing us. And one of the devastating issue known by every each of us is change in climate scratching our mind to diagnosis its problem. But in my opinion everyone of us has its role to handle it but actually no one is showing their responsibility to climate change.

Climate is friendly words for us. Climate can be defined as some expected weather and when there is a changes in expected weather we call it climate change. Climate change can be understand as opposite of expected weather. As we know climate differs over different time scales or different geographical scales.

Climate change, changing into mainly destruction to our natural weather unlike blessing. This is leading our climate into unpredictable condition which is actually going to suffer to us at long run. Our world temperature has been increasing or decreasing at unusual time since a very long time and scientist has proved that human activities are leading to this problem. So, all blame only goes human and its unnecessary creation because this type of creation produce a lot of harmful gases that acquire in the air and creates a new problem called 'Global Warming'. Global Warming literally means the increasing in the earth's average atmosphere temperature due to the greenhouse effect. Our average temperature has risen so rapidly that it is predicted to damage earth's ozone layer someday. This may lead us to unpredictable condition which neither thought about in the dreams. This not only rises our earth's average temperature but also causes many effects such as glacier melting, increases diseases like skin diseases, sun burn, malaria too, unusual water temperature, increase in drought, hurricanes, and so on.

Factors affecting to Climate changeThere are lots and lots of factors responding to climate change such as Air Pollution, excessive use of H2O,Deforestation, sewage, undegredable substance like polythene and so on:-

(1) Air Pollution- There are so many pollution harming our environment due to silly mistaken done by us. For detail smoke produce by factories, industries, burning of polythene led harmful gases that harms our environment directly or indirectly. - Direct is the time when harmful gases produce from such condition enters our body and effects it directly and indirectly is the time when the harmful gases deposits in the ozone layer causing the depletion to it called global warming. This global warming is one of the major problem in our current situation because its causing one of the dangerous diseases i.e skin cancer.
Factors affecting to Climate change
(2) Deforestation- The major gas that needed by human being is 02 which is mainly produce by trees and plants. But nowadays we know there are lots of deforestation going on which can lead to big issue like decreasing in o2 percentage and increasing in co2. Due to this our world is facing a big problem which is also a great factor to climate change.

(3) Sewage- Industries, factories produc
es lots of an energy producing side products like sewage. Sewage actually means a solution or suspension flown away from factories. It contains some of the harmful bacteria and chemicals that can infect human beings, animals and environment too.

These all are the human activities responsing in
the future. But there are also some other factors affecting to climate change naturally like: -
(1) Currents of ocean, sea.
(2) Distance from the sea or ocean.
(3) Winds.

(4) Proximity to the equator.


Life on earth exists only because of atmosphere. It is like a blanket around the Earth, protecting it from the sun and providing the necessary conditions in which animals and plants can live. It is basically a blanket of air wrapped around the earth. This air is a mixture of two gases, Nitrogen (four-fifth) and Oxygen (one-fifth).

The atmosphere is made up of five main layers: the troposphere, the stratosphere, the thermosphere, the mesosphere and the exosphere. The air gets thinner as you go higher, which is why climbers usually take oxygen with them when climbing high mountains. The troposphere is the only layer in which living things can breathe normally. Now let us go in detail about each of the layers. Exosphere is the top layer of the atmosphere and sits about 560 miles above earth. The air is very thin and gas molecules are constantly exiting into space. The thermosphere on the other hand sits about 280 miles above the earth. It is the hottest layer, as the few air molecules absorb radiation coming from the Sun. The Mesosphere is about 50 miles above the ground. It is very cold here with temperatures less than -150 degree Celsius. The lower part is warmer because it picks up heat from the stratosphere just below. Stratosphere is up to about 30 miles above the ground. The temperature in this layer warms from above -76 degree Celsius at the bottom to just above freezing at the top. It contains Ozone, a gas that absorbs harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun. Finally the last one, Troposphere. Here the weather conditions happen in the bottom layer of the atmosphere. This layer stretches up 12 miles from the ground at the equator and about 6 miles at the poles.

The atmosphere not only provides us with oxygen to breathe. It shields us from the Sun’s harmful rays. Some of these are reflected are reflected by various layers such as the stratosphere and the clouds. Other rays have their energy absorbed and spread out through the atmosphere. The gas ozone occurs thinly in the stratosphere and absorbs most of the Sun’s dangerous ultraviolet rays.

1) Historical and archaeological evidence
Climate change can be detected by monitoring the changes in agricultural patterns as well as settlement.Various civilizations have collapsed due to to the effects of climate change.

Due to change in climate, there is a change in the type and distribution of vegetation. Faster changes however, may have caused desertification in certain ares.

3)Ice Cores
The study of ice drilled from the depths of the antarctic continent can be used to show the connection between temperature and var
iation in sea level. The air trapped in the bubbles in the ice can be used to find the CO2 concentration of the air and can be compared with the present concentration to note its rise.

Glaciers can be considered be the most concrete evidences of climate change.Glacier retreats leave behind moraines that consist of organic matter that can be accurately dated. This study gives us the proof that glaciers certainly are retreating. Moreover, photographic evidences to prove this phenomena are also available.

5)Study Of Tree Rings
The study of tree rings, also known as Dendroclimatology, is the analysis of tree ring growth to determine the climate variations in the past. Wide and thick rings indicate a period with adequate water as narrow rings indicate a period with low rainfall and harsh growing conditions

Will Earth Sustain Future Generatoin
After four years of making a comprehensive study of the world's major ecosystems, a group of scholars and environmental leaders, who were part of a study called the Millennium Ecosystems Assessment (MA) - published their first report. Some of the conclusions they reached follow :
"During the past half century, the growing demand for food, freshwater, timber fiber and fuel has caused unprecedented changes in earth's ecosystem, straining earth's ability to sustain future generations."
Earth's natural ability to pollinate crops, provide air conditioning by wild plants and recycle nutrients by the oceans is being overtaxed. The planet is also at the edge of a missive wave of species extinction.

Can planet earth be saved? The answer is a resounding yes! As caretakers of God's creation, we should do our best to respect the environment. However only through divine intervention will the ecosystems be brought back into balance.

Conservation For Climate ChangeConservation for climate change means conserving the natural resources. Both climate and nature are interrelated because if our nature is good then only our climate can be better. So natural recources needs to view their consumption and utilization. Absolute conservation encompasses the quantity and quality of resources such as air water, land, forest, mineral without their declination. The concept of maintaining natural resources in the same quantity and quality is an absolute conservation approach. It is very amiable and critically necessary to follow practicable methods of the natural resources conservation in order to keep the climate humid on balanced.

Conservation For Climate Change The concept accepts the thinking that the consumption utilization and conservation are to be integrated. It is very essential to keep the idea of the necessity of natural resources in the future alert in our mind, while on the contrary, we humans are showing the greedy and in generous behaviour towards the nature by over-exploiting the resources to fulfil our needs. The role of human beings in the conservation and management of natural resources is the most vital. Ultimately this helps to secure or protect natural resources. "Human beings should act as a conservationist but not as an exploiter of natural resources.

Some of the activities related to natural conservation are:

1) Conservation Programme:

2) Government agency:

3) National and international agency

4) Non - government agency

5) Educational institution

6) Law

Before understanding about the climate change around us, we have to know the basic knowledge about the climate and how it has started. Our mother planet(Earth) receive some sort of energy from the Sun which regulates the climate all over the earth. Our earth's climate not only change due to effect of sun but also from the energy that comes within from the earth viz. the atmosphere, the oceans, biospheres, geosphere, land, Ice living organisms which indirectly ulters the heat around the surface of earth.

The atmosphere which plays a great role in the
Climate systemearth's climate. The atmosphere contains a variety of gases like oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and so on. But as a days are passing the harmful gases like methane, carbon dioxide are forming in the air along and decreasing the amount of natural gases which is known as greenhouse effect. These harmful gases has a large effects on the energy that regulates the climate of the earth because the greenhouse effect traps a lot of heat in the atmosphere and unable these harmful gases to get of the atmosphere keeping the earth warmer.

The cryosphere such as ice sheets, glacier, sea ice, and so on have a lot significant impact on our earth as it being white reflects the sunlight rays but due to global warming it is melting in a great speed and defecting to absorb the heat. So, without the cryosphere our earth would be more warmer as it traps the heat and would not reflect any heat and consequently increasing the earth temperature.

Climate change and deteriorating interest of politics

We are very unlikely to see how climate deal in any time closer because the world still hasn't matured enough when global interest are staking. The lack of political will and the differences between the countries has showed that our civilization is not as advanced as many think it is. Humanity has failed to prove itself, benevolent by making the climate impossible to line with.

The science pleads to us to stop emitting much greenhouse gases, they show us various reports regarding climate change in form of ice-melting, animal disappearing, drought and so on. Then we finally observe some weak public support which ends with a false political promise about the neccesity of urgent action.

It is fact that political action can change the rules and laws relate to the climate change such as emission limits of greenhouse effects, tax incentives and so on. Political action is so important around us therefore, it can catch its attention against media and public too.

A large number of people has gather together to combat against climate change and its effect. NGOs(Non- governmental organisations) from different
countries have arrived for the issue of climate change. 50 countries from all around the world has create a program called 'stop climate chaos' launched in Britain which is based on climate change issue. Such campaign are created to focus purely into issue of climate change and to pressurize the government for the climate change movement.

Disasters in 2007

The year 2007 was a terrific year for most of the country . Almost each country suffered from weather related disasters for which the United Nations Office for the allocating of Humanitarian Affairs issued 14 exigency petition-3. Listed below are some of the disasters that took place in 2007. Keeping in mind, of course, the individual actions are not necessarily attested in a long-term drift.
  • England and Wales : About 350,000 people suffered disaster which has never been in over 60 years. Both England and Wales suffered a great disaster in May to July.
  • Lesotho : It was a terrific year for Lesotho. Drought and rising temperature destroyed a lot of crops. About 553,000 people required food aid.
  • Sudan : Heavy rains caused 150,000 people shelterless. More than 500,000 received aid.
  • Madagascar : Heavy rains, cyclones and other hazards caused 33,000 people suffered and 260,000 crops destroyed.
  • North Korea : Around 960,000 people were badly hit by widespread landslides, and mud slides.
  • Bangladesh : 8.5 million people were affected by flood and killed more than 3,000 as well as 1.25 million farm animals. Nearly 1.5 million homes were either damaged or destroyed.
  • India : 30 million people were injured by flood.
  • Bolivia : More than 350,000 were effected by floods displacing 25,000 .
  • Mexico : Unbelievable floods at least lead 500,000 homeless and effected more than a million.
  • United States : Fires across tinder-dry southern California lead 500,000 residents to flee from their homes.
  • Dominican Republic: Heavy rainfall caused floods and landslides, leading 65,000 displaced.
  • Pakistan : Cyclones lead 377,000 people homeless and hundreds of dead.

The changing surface of the Earth

The Earth's surface is changing all the time, these changes are caused by wind, wind and ice and are so gradual that we fail to notice them. Tiny rivulets flowing down from the top of the mountains join with others and soon turned into fast flowing rivers. These rivuletes and rivers varry away with them, rocks and the upper layers of soil, some even cut into the sides of mountains that they flow through. The rock and soil carried away is then deposited in the deltas and the seas. Rain water seeps into the ground and cuts away under the surface thus forming underground tunnels. On the desert-front strong gusts o f wind form sand dunes and constantly blow sand onto rocky surfaces thus gradually cutting them into new shapes. On the higher altitudes water seeps into crackes in rocks and freezes. As it freezes, it expands, thus splitting the rocks.

Individual action against the climate change

As we know, climate change is increasing in so rapid rate that it is nearly impossible to fight against its harm, according to scientist and other intelligence individual action is needed to stop its further defection. Individual action is one of the most essential and effective method to fight against climate change.
  • Carbon diet is one the effective way to know how climate change has effect the environment and to understand some action to diagnosis its impact.
  • Low carbon diet is another way to reduce the climate change impact by choosing the food which effect the climate much less.
  • Using Vehicles that does not emits co2. Running, bicycle is least impactful mode of transportation that will help our climate to free from carbon dioxide.
  • Using mostly non - animal products because animal products produces more greenhouse gases. According to the some intelligence it is known that animal products cause more effects on climate than burning fuels.
  • Using Vehicles that gives more mileage because these cars produce less carbon dioxide than vehicle giving less mileage.
  • Using wind energy is the most efficient method to produce electricity because it produce less amount of harmful gases actually negligible amount of gases. Nowadays, it is being used in various european countries like Denmark, Spain, Italy and so on.
  • Planting trees is one of the famous method to control the climate. Planting trees helps to remove the carbon dioxide as the grown trees sucks up the air co2. There are many places where plants can be grown such as in places like road ways, parks, forests, public gardens, yards and so on. And buying non-old growth paper is better for our climate and as well as for forests.
  • We can see the star label in modern appliances like washing machine, geyeser, household appliances, office equipment, heating and cooling equipment, lights, kitchen appliance and so on. This star label is meant for the less consumption of energy.

Historical Records

Historical records is one the necessity for reconstruct of climate so historical records have been used to reconstruct climates back to thousand years. Historical data can be observe in 3 major categories. Firstly, there are some observations of weather phenomena per sa, i.e the timing and frequency of frosts, or the snowfall occurence. Secondly, there are another observation of weather-dependent environment phenomena i.e drought, floods, and other climate base problems. Finally, there are phenological observation of weather-dependent biological phenomena i.e the migration of birds, the flowering of trees.

Some major sources of historical palaeclimate information include: ancient inscriptions; annals and chronicles; government recors; fragmented olden instrumental records; diaries and correspondence; scientific or quasi-scientific writings and so on.

There could be a lot of difficulties using these kinds of information. First, to understand what the author actually meant in describing the particular event. How "severe" frost could actually be severe? What does drought precisely means? A standard historical technique has been used assess, in quantitative terms.

Secondly, the account's reliability has to be assessed. It is compulsory to check whether the author has direct evidence on the meteorological events. Thirdly, it is necessary to consult about the date and information exactly accurately. This involves whether the event is a localised occurrence or can its spatial event be explained by preference to other source.

Finally, the data should be with all proxy records, interrelated against recent events and cross reference with data of instrument. This can be done by measuring through indices, which is directly related with analogous records derived from instrument data.


Various plates of the Earth's crust shift, due to the molten rock lying beneath them, this causes them to collide and spread out. This movement forces the molten rock to move upwards and come out on the surface thus forming volcanoes. It is because of this that most volcanoes are located on the edges of the Earth's crustal plates. The name Volcano is derived from the name of an island called 'Volcano' in the Mediterranean sea, which was formed due to a Volcanic eruption.

More than 800 active volcanoes exist all over the Earth, mostly located in the Pacific ocean region. The molten rock which erupts from volcanoes is called 'Magma'. Gases including sulphur, carbon dioxide and water vapour below the crust expand and force the magma upwards and it erupts fromm the gasps in the Earth's crust. The escaping molten rock is called 'Lava', it has a temperatur of about 1,000 degree centigrade, and is capable of melting steel.

Igneous rocks are produced as a result of the cooling of volcanic lava. The shape of a volcano depends upon the type of magma it produces i.e. magma of a thinner consistency produces a relatively flatter volcano whereas thick magma produces a volcano which has a steep, inverted, cone. There are some volcanoes which throw up large quantities of ash, as result of which they have cones largely made up of ash. Volcanoes are either 'Active' or 'Extinct'. Active colcanoes erupt in spurts on various volcanoes and between eruptions they are called as Dormant volcanoes on the other hand had erupted thousands of years ago and have stopped erupting since then. The Mt. Vesuvius erupted in the 79 A.D. when it buried the city of Pompeii and then it erupted in the year 1944. One of the greates volcanic eruptions occured on the island of Krakatoa in Indonesia in the year 1883. One of the other volcanic wonders is the formation of the island of Surtsey, near Iceland, in 1963.

Different types of clouds

Clouds are an essential part of the weather conditions which exist around us. Warm air rises upwards in the atmosphere carrying with it dust and moisture from evaporated surface water. At higher altitudes the air is cooler and the vapour in the warm air reaches its 'Dew point' where it changes either to small particles of ice or into water thus forming clouds. Since cloud formation takes place at different heights and temperature, clouds are of different types.

There are basically three main types of clouds. Upto about 1.5 km from the ground we generally see the first type called the 'Stratus' clouds, on occassions it is the grey status clouds which bear light rain. In the colder areas the water in these clouds freezes thus resulting in snow fall. Slowly rising warm air produces thes clouds. Above these and upto about 4.5 km lie the 'Cumulus' Clouds, these are the fluffy clouds which is a result of quickly rising warm air. Above the cumulus clouds, at an altitude of about 14 km float the 'Cirrus cloud'. This cloud are wispy cloud formed at such a high altitude that they contain only Ice crytals.

Lying between these three main types of clouds are other types of clouds are other tupes like the Stratocummulus, Altocummulus, which are medium sized and consist of rounded massess, Cirrocummulus which contains rippled clouds or rounded masses, Altostratus which is a greyish sheet cloud and Cumulonimbus clouds which cause thunderstorms and so on. Cumulonimbus carry in them both negative and positive charges, the positive charge tend to move to the upper levels of the cloud while the negative remains below, the separatin of the charges results in the discharge of lightning. As lightning strikes, it is followed by thunder which is caused by the heat created by lightning.

The changing seasons

The Earth takes 365 days to complete one revolution around the Sun, a tilt of 23.5 degrees in its axis results in the poles pointing towards or away from the Sun and reversing their position once every three months. It also results in the Sun's rays falling unevenly on different parts of the Earth thus giving us different seasons. In the month of March the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun so we have 'Spring' in the northern hemisphere and 'Autumn" in the southern and in September these seasons get reversed because the Southern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun. In June the northern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun so we have 'Summer' in the north and 'Winter' in the South. In December the southern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun so the seasons get reversed in this period.

Rivers and their changing paths

Rivers are formed either from underground springs, mountains ice which melts with the change of seasons or from water flowing out of large lakes. Rivers play a major role in shaping the Earth's surface, either by eroding mountains or by depositing rockes and soil in new areas. As rivers flow, water erodes in the banks and washes away the soil or rock. Over a period of time the currents begin to form bends in the river's pathe, as shown in the diagram. These bends are called 'Meanders'. River currents move the water towards the outer sides of these meanders, as a result of this the gradual twists and turns of the river become sharp bends. The river continues to cut into the soil on the outer bend and deposits the sediments on the inner bends and deposits the sediments on the inner bends thus changing its shape. Gradually the rivver cuts into one of the bends and isolates or abandons a patch of water, in the shape of crescent, and by depositing soil in front of it, forms an 'Oxbow lake'.

The Earth

Ourplanet,the Earth,is a part of the Sun's family and is located about 150 million kmaway from it.The Sun was formed due to the contraction of a cloud of Gas and Dust,the remaining part of this cloud eventually formed the other planets in the same manner.The Earth took close to million years to become a glowing ball comprising of molten rock.The molten rock on the surface gradually began to sink towards the centre,as a result of this a curst was formed.Volcanoes on the surface regularly threw out this molten rock and other gases.These gases in turn formed water vapour and the layers of atmosphere which surrounded the Earth.The Earth as we see it today has a diametre of 12,756 km and a cirumference of 40,075 km at the equator.It has a total mass ofabout 6,000 billion billion tons with a land area of a about 29 percent,the balance 71 percent area is covered by the oceans.Just like globe,the Earth rotates on an imaginary axis and it takes 23 hours 59 minutes and 4 seconds to complete one rotation causing day

and night.Like the other planets the Earth also revoles around the Sun and it takes 365 days 6 hours and 9 minutes to comlete one revolution .

The Earth is tilted on its axis at an angle of 23.5 degrees,it is because of this tilt that the Sun's rays fall unevenly on different parts of the Earth thus giving us different seasons.The amount of time the Earth takes to revolve on its axis decides night and day for us and the time taken in going around the Sun once gives us the year.

Weather conditions in the making

We have sunny days and we have days when the sky is covered with clouds which is followed by storms and rain. These changes are a part of the weather conditions which exist on the Earth. The sun is resposible for the weather condions existing on the Earth. Since the Earth is round and tilted on an imaginary axis, the Equator receives a maximum amount of the sun;s rays. On the other hand the Polar regions receive a very small quantity of sunlight because the sun's rays are tilted and spread over a larger area at the poles. This results in the equator becoming an area where the air is very warm and the polar regions becoming an area with cooler air.

Warm air rises upwards and moves toward the polar regions or cools down at higher altitudes and tends to move downwards. The cold air in the polar regions does not rise and begins to move downwards. The cold air in the polar regions does not rise and begins to move towards the warmer areas. This is where the weather cycle starts. The Earth's rotation also contributes its bit by pusing the winds westward. Next in line the land and sea massess also have their, effects since land heats up much faster than water. As a result we have air currents and cloud formations which give us the varying weather condtions.

Water evaporates from the Earth's surface and combined with dust particles in the air, it forms clouds in areas known as 'Warm fronts'. At the higher altitudes these vapour bearing clouds come in contact with cold air currents, called 'Cold fronts' which cause condensation, resulting in rain. Weather is forecast with the help of pictures received from weather satellites and surface conditions as observed by various observers around the world. The predictions are done using maps of the world which have lines called 'Isobars' and 'Isotherms' drawn upon them for marking areas with high or low air pressure and temperature conditions respectively.

The Ozone Layer

The Earth's atmosphere comprises of various layers, the first which extends up to 10 km from the Earth's surface is the 'Troposhere'. Above this as the 'Stratosphere' which is between 10 and 50 km, then the 'Mesosphere' between 50 and 80 km and finally there is the 'Ionosphere' which is located between 80 and 500 km from the Earth's surface with temperature as high as 2000 degree centigrade.

About 30 km above the Earth's surface in the Stratosphere is a layer of gas which surrounds the Earth, this gas is called Ozone which is a form of oxygen. As the Sun's rays enter the Earth's atmosphere Ozone filters the harmful ultra violet rays and prevents them from reaching the Earth.

If this layer were not there then the ultra violet rays would destroy all life on Earth. Because of it s acting as a filter this layer is a warm layer with temperature about 50 degree. Increased industrial development on Earth has in turn increased the pollutin levels in the air, besides this the use of certain chemicals including CFC's has begun to destroy this layer and holes in it have been discovered over the Antarctica and the Arctic circle. Depletion of the Ozone layer would result in an increase in temperature on Earth and a rise in the water levels of the oceans not to mention the harmful ultra violet rays.

Environmentalists are concerned about the depltion of this layer. Worldwide campaigns have been launched to control pollution and the use of certain ozone destroying chemicals. The biggest contributor to pollution levels is smoke which comes out of the exhausts of vehicles and the smoke from the factories and power stations. Various precautions can be taken in day to day life so that pollution levels are decreased and the ozone layer saved.

Ice Ages

To find out what the climate was long before mankind scientist started to collect the information from ice cores, tree rings and sea floor sediments and began to keep the records of the weather. This record revealed that the climate in the Earth before was unbalanced between much colder periods and much warmer ones.

Many years from today at the time when dinosaurs was predicted to live, the Earth was very warmer than it is today. Over time, the Earth gradually cooled down due to drifting of continents affected the way heat was stored in the atmosphere and in the oceans. From that time there has always been ice at the Northern and Southern areas, but the amount has grown and shrunk repeatedly, corresponding to colder and warmer climates. This such type of cold periods are known to be Ice Ages.

Oceans and seas

The oceans are vast expanses of water which cover about 71 percent of our planet and separate the continents. Millions of years ago when the Earth cooled from its molten state, water vapour in the atmosphere condensed to form water which collected in deep trenches on the surface, thus forming the oceans. Water on the land flowed into them in the shape of rivers, which carried with them an array of minerals thus making the ocean water, salty. The oceans are responsible for influencing the climatic conditions on the Earth besides providing us with minerals and food because they are home to various types of plant life, fish and other creatures. The Pacific Ocean which is the largest and deepest ocean covers about one-third of our planet followed by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Seas on the other hand are smaller portions of water with land on their sides. Under the surfaces of the water we find deep trenches and under-sea mountains which have risen from the sea bed, in some cases coming out of the water to form small islands.


In shaded valleys of snow capped mountains we can see vast rivers of ice, these are called 'Glaciers'. Most glaciers we see today actually date back to the last Ice Age on the Earth. On occasions snow falls quicker than it can melt, thus accumulating large quantities. The upper layers of snow exert a downward pressure which compacts the lower layer and forms ice, this created glaciers. Glaciers gradually move down gill because additional snow piled up at the top exerts a pressure which causes them to gradually shift down the valley under their own weight, with the centre moving faster than the sides and on occasions creating huge crevasses. As glaciers move they caary with them racks and stones called 'Moraine', theses are deposited down hill and lakes are often formed behind these deposits which act like natural dams.

The Changing Colour<br />

When we see the sun during the daytime it lika bright yellow ball of fire but in the mornings and evenings we see it as bright and glowing orange ball. In reality the Sun does not change its colour, this effect is produced by the Earth's atmosphere which acts as a light red filter. In the day time the Sun is high in the sky. Its rays have to pass through a lesser part of the Earth;s atmosphere, as a result of which the Sun is seen as a bright yellow ball of fire. During the sunreise and sunset the rays the rays have to pass through a larger part of the atmosphere. This is the reason why the Sun appears red in colour during sunrises and sunsets: As we know light is made up of different colours and rays of red light pass through air much more easily than rays of any other colour. All pictures of the Earth which are taken by satellites or by Astronauts in space, are usually taken through a red filter for this reason. (Never look at hte sun directly or even through a lens, it could damage our eyesight)







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